Nucleosomes

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Nucleosomes

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Integration in active transcription units HIV transcription
The nucleosome, which condenses and organizes cellular genomic DNA. Cellular DNA within nucleosomes serves as the target for HIV DNA integration. Integration of each of the two viral DNA ends takes place on opposite walls of the DNA major groove. From coordinate file 1AOI.

The target for integration is cellular DNA, usually wrapped with histone proteins in nucleosomes [1] [2] [3] The integrated form of the viral DNA is termed the "provirus" [4]














  1. Pryciak PM, Varmus HE. 1992. Nucleosomes, DNA-binding proteins, and DNA sequence modulate retroviral integration target site selection. Cell 69: 769-780.
  2. Pruss D, Bushman FD, Wolffe AP. 1994. Human immunodeficiency virus integrase directs integration to sites of severe DNA distortion within the nucleosome core. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 5913-5917.
  3. Wang GP, Ciuffi A, Leipzig J, Berry CC, Bushman FD. 2007. HIV integration site selection: analysis by massively parallel pyrosequencing reveals association with epigenetic modifications. Genome research 17: 1186-1194
  4. Temin HM, Cooper GM, Temin RG, Sugden B, Howard Temin Commemorative Symposium. 1995. The DNA provirus : Howard Temin's scientific legacy. ASM Press, Washington, D.C